Interviews Questions

What is SQL Server Management Studio?
SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) is an integrated environment for accessing, configuring, managing, administering, and developing all components of SQL Server. SSMS combines a broad group of graphical tools with a number of rich script editors to provide developers and administrators of all skill levels access to SQL Server.

What is SQL Server Data Tools?
SQL Server Data Tools is a modern development tool that you can download for free to build SQL Server relational databases, Azure SQL databases, Integration Services packages, Analysis Services data models, and Reporting Services reports. With SSDT, you can design and deploy any SQL Server content type with the same ease as you would develop an application in Visual Studio.

What is Symmetric Multi-Processing (SMP) System?
Symmetric Multi-Processing (SMP) is a tightly coupled multiprocessor system where processors share resources – single instances of the Operating System (OS), memory, I/O devices and connected using a common bus. 

What is Massively Parallel Processing (MPP) System?
Massively Parallel Processing (MPP) is the coordinated processing of a single task by multiple processors, each processor using its own OS and memory and communicating with each other using some form of messaging interface. MPP can be setup with a shared nothing or shared disk architecture.

What is Azure App Services?
Azure App Service is a one-of-a-kind cloud platform to build powerful web and mobile apps that connect to data anywhere, in the cloud or on-premises in a simpler way. These capabilities allows organizations to design and deliver amazing apps significantly faster than using traditional development process. 
Organizations can stop worrying about the infrastructure and platform capabilities instead focus on building great apps. The session will focus on different services that are part of Azure app services and also discuss about features specific to these services.

What is Azure Data Lake? 
Azure Data Lake (ADL) includes ADL store - a petabyte-scale repository, ADL analytics - a first of its kind Job-as-a-Service model and HDInsight - leading Hadoop distribution on cloud. The ADL tools for Visual studio provide a rich development platform, making Big Data easier and faster. The webinar will cover key features of ADL components and include demos of development toolkits.

What is Azure SQL Database?
SQL Azure Database is a cloud-based relational database service built on SQL Server technologies which is known as a platform as a service (PaaS) database or a database as a service (DBaaS) that is optimized for software-as-a-service (SaaS) app development.  It offers compatibility with most SQL Server features and provides a highly available, scalable, multi-tenant database service hosted by Microsoft in the cloud. SQL Azure Database helps to ease provisioning and deployment of multiple databases. When using SQL Database, we have to pay-as-we-go with options to scale up or out for greater power with no interruption.

What is SQL Server on Azure VMs?

On the other hand, SQL Server on Azure VMs falls into the industry category Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS). It allows us to run SQL Server inside a virtual machine in the cloud. Just like to SQL Database, SQL Server on Azure VM is built on standardized hardware that is owned, hosted, and maintained by Microsoft where we can either pay-as we-go for a SQL Server license already included in a SQL Server image or easily use an existing license. We can also easily scale-up/down and pause/resume the VM as needed.

What is OLTP?
In SQL Server database, OLTP is known as Online Transactional Processing where Transactions are for write operations and the OLTP model is optimised for this. Online customers do interact with business application to fulfil their needs such as online shopping carts e.g. Amazon. 

What is OLAP?
In SQL Server database, OLAP stands for Online Analytical Processing, Analysis being the keyword meaning lots of reads. Business users/ data analytics are the users for this type of the data to make the right decision for the business growth.

Why Index sizes are consolidated and separated?
Whenever we create a clustered index on a table then clustered index consist a data rows in a leaf node that’s why clustered index’s size is consolidated with table size.
But whenever we create any nonclustered index on a table then nonclustered index contains a row locator at leaf node that’s why index structure is totally separated from table data structure.

What is Dynamic Data Masking?

Dynamic Data masking is nothing more than a new security feature to hide sensitive data in the result sets of queries over designated database fields, while the data in the database is not changed. DDM is used to create a new representation of data with random characters or data that are structurally similar to original data. It is normally done for the protection of our sensitive data. This functional term is also known as data obfuscation.

Difference between union all, union and intersect in SQL server?
Union - This operator is design to merge more than two datasets and it eliminates duplicate rows if any. It gives unique record from all data set.
Union all - This operator to design merge more than two datasets and does not eliminate duplicate rows if any. It gives all  records from all data set.

Intersect - It will show when rows are identical and not include rows which are different. It will remove duplicates as well.

What do you do when you set a database to single user and then are unable to use it ?
You can do the following things to handle this situation - 
  1. DO NOT PANIC. Take your hands off the mouse and the keyboard and take a deep breath.
  2. Open a command prompt (run as administrator) and run the following command:                          SQLCMD -S <INSTANCENAME> -E -A
  3. Run your command next to bring that DB to multi-user or drop the DB or whatever was your original intention. Remember T-SQL will be waiting for a 'Go' to execute your command.
Its called the Dedication Administrator Connection and is very helpful in tough situations. To check if DAC is enabled go ahead and use sp_configure and check values for 'remote admin connections'.

What is the difference Parameterization queries and Prepared queries, or are they the same?
Answer- Prepared query: application is coded to use query with parameters, and passes values in parameter objects,
Parameterized query: query uses hard coded values; SQL Server replaces them with internal parameters so that the execution plan can be reused.

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